Balikpapan's toponym (balik = "behind" and papan = "plank") is from a folk story in which a local king threw his newborn daughter into the sea to protect her from his enemies.The baby was tied beneath some planks that were discovered by a fisherman.
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Balikpapan is a seaport city on the east coast of the island of Borneo, in the Indonesian province of East Kalimantan.
Two harbors, Semayang and Kariangau (a ferry harbour), and Sultan Aji Muhammad Sulaiman Airport are the main transportation ports to the city.
The city has a population of 701,066, Before the oil boom of the early 1900s, Balikpapan was an isolated Bugis fishing village.
In 1897 a small refinery company began the first oil drilling.
Several campaigns, including the longest bombing run so far, followed until the 1945 Battle of Balikpapan, which concluded the Borneo campaign by which Allied Forces took control of Borneo island.
Extensive wartime damage curtailed almost all oil production in the area until Royal Dutch Shell completed major repairs in 1950.
In 1958 the CIA attacked Balikpapan and stopped oil exports.
The US was running a CIA covert mission to undermine President Sukarno's government by supporting right-wing rebels in Indonesia.
The CIA, Taiwan and the Philippines had provided the Permesta rebels in North Sulawesi with an insurgent air force, the Angkatan Udara Revolusioner (AUREV).
On 19 April 1958 a CIA pilot, William H Beale, Jr, flying a B-26 Invader bomber aircraft that was painted black and showing no markings, Lacking technology, skilled manpower, and capital to explore the petroleum region, Pertamina sublet petroleum concession contracts to multinational companies in the 1970s.